How to Setup Magento with Nginx and Cloudflare CDN / SSL on Ubuntu 16.04 | 18.04

A few days go we showed you how to setup Magento 2 with Apache2 and PHP 7.2 on Ubuntu 16.04 | 18.04… Well, this post shows you how to configure Magento with Nginx and PHP 7.2-FPM instead.. For those who prefer Nginx…

Magento 2, a free (community edition) and powerful eCommerce platform to run your online store works great out of the box after installing… However, to give your students and users the best experience, you may want to consider using Cloudflare CDN, SSL and protection…

Cloudflare provides free and paid features that help speed up websites, offers free CDN and SSL services that protect millions of websites and domains online and many more…

If you’re a student or new user running Magento and want to take advantage of all the great features Cloudflare offers, the steps below should help you get there…

This brief tutorial will show students and new user a step by step guide on how to setup Magento websites and use Cloudflare’s CDN, free SSL and security features to help improve their website performance and protect their sites against malicious actors..

This setup might take a while to complete and the process below should work on other websites as well… It doesn’t have to be Magento… This setup should work on other CMSs and plain HTML sites out of the box…When you’re ready to setup Magento and Cloudflare, follow the steps below:

Step 1: Sign up for Cloudflare Account…

The first step in this tutorial is to sign up for Cloudflare service… This assumes that you already have registered a domain name.. If you don’t, then go and get one before continuing further…

Once you have a domain name, click on the link below to sign up for Cloudflare…

https://dash.cloudflare.com/sign-up

Type in your email address and click Create Account..

Cloudflare WordPress setup

Once the account is created and you’ve verified your email address and logged back into Cloudflare account, click the button or link (Add a Site) to add a site to your account…

Cloudflare WordPress setup

Next, type in the domain name you have registered… Cloudflare service will help speed up and protect the site you add…

Cloudflare WordPress setup

Next, Cloudflare will begin to query your domain DNS provider for the records in the DNS table… If the domain is online, Cloudflare should find it and import the records into your Cloudflare account…

Cloudflare WordPress setup

After that, select the plan you want to use for the site… For this tutorial, we’re going to be using Cloudflare free plan…

Cloudflare WordPress setup

When you’re done, you should see two nameservers provided to you by Cloudflare… What you need to do is logon to your domain provider’s portal… where you have your domain… and replace the nameservers with the ones Cloudflare gives you…

For example, our example.com site is hosted with Google Domains.. so we’ll logon to our Google Domains account and use custom nameservers… Then we’ll use the nameservers provided by Cloudflare and save..

Cloudflare WordPress Setup

Once you’ve saved your custom nameservers changes,  go back to your Cloudflare account and wait for Cloudflare to see the changes…. Depending on your domain provider, it make take up to an hour for Cloudflare to be visible…

Once all is ready, you’ll see your site status as Active..

When everything is done, you should also see your Cloudflare account with DNS entries as shown below… Your DNS records might have more entries then the two below.. but these two are the most important for running your website….

Cloudflare WordPress Setup

After that, click on Crypto tab and choose to enable Full (strict) SSL.. This should turn on SSL for the site…

Cloudflare WordPress Setup

Still under Crypto tab, scroll down to Origin Certificates… Then click the button to create certificate…

Use the free TLS certificate signed by Cloudflare to install on your origin server… Origin Certificates are only valid for encryption between Cloudflare and your origin server…

Next, choose to Let Cloudflare generate a private key and a CSR for the domain… Click Next…

WordPress Cloudflare

Then copy a paste these into a text file on onto your server…

On Ubuntu, run the commands below to create the key, certificate and origin pull files… Copy and paste each content into the respective file.. and save..

For the key file… run this, then copy and paste the key into the file and save…

sudo nano /etc/ssl/private/cloudflare_example.com.pem

For the certificate file, run this and copy and paste the certificate content into the file and save…

sudo /etc/ssl/certs/cloudflare_example.com.pem

You’ll also want to download Cloudflare Origin Pull certificate… You can download that from the link below:

https://support.cloudflare.com/hc/en-us/articles/204899617-Authenticated-Origin-Pulls#section6

Run th commands below to download it..

cd /etc/ssl/certs/
sudo wget https://support.cloudflare.com/hc/en-us/article_attachments/201243967/origin-pull-ca.pem

After that, you should have three files.. The server key, server certificate and the origin-pull certificate..

We will use these file in Nginx config below

After saving the key, certificate and origin pull certificates files… continue below..

Still, under, Crypto enable Always use HTTPS and you may also change settings for HSTS but not necessary…

Next, turn on Authenticated Origin Pulls and Opportunistic Encryption, and continue..

Then, turn on Automatic HTTPS Rewrites and continue..

Next, move to the Speed tab, tune on Auto Minify for JavaScript, CSS and HTML.. and continue

Next, move to the Page Rules tab… then create a new rule for the site.. then type URL and choose Always Use HTTPS

http://* example.com/*

Alwyas Use HTTPS

Save your settings and you’re done with setting up Cloudflare..

Step 2: Install and Configure Magento

Now that Cloudflare is configure, logon to your server and configure Magento… First install Nginx HTTP server since we’re using Nginx for this post.. To install Nginx server, run the commands below:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install nginx

After installing Nginx, the commands below can be used to stop, start and enable Nginx service to always start up with the server boots…

sudo systemctl stop nginx.service
sudo systemctl start nginx.service
sudo systemctl enable nginx.service

Now that Nginx is installed…. to test whether the web server is working, open your browser and browse to the URL below…

https://localhost

nginx default home page test

If you see the page above, then Nginx is successfully installed…

Step 3: Install MariaDB Database Server

Magento also requires a database server to store its content… If you’re looking for a truly open source database server, then MariaDB is a great place to start… To install MariaDB run the commands below:

sudo apt-get install mariadb-server mariadb-client

After installing MariaDB, the commands below can be used to stop, start and enable MariaDB service to always start up when the server boots…

Run these on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

sudo systemctl stop mysql.service
sudo systemctl start mysql.service
sudo systemctl enable mysql.service

Run these on Ubuntu 19.04 and 18.04 LTS

sudo systemctl stop mariadb.service
sudo systemctl start mariadb.service
sudo systemctl enable mariadb.service

Next, run the commands below to secure the database server with a root password if you were not prompted to do so during the installation…

sudo mysql_secure_installation

When prompted, answer the questions below by following the guide.

  • Enter current password for root (enter for none): Just press the Enter
  • Set root password? [Y/n]: Y
  • New password: Enter password
  • Re-enter new password: Repeat password
  • Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]: Y
  • Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]: Y
  • Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]:  Y
  • Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]:  Y

Now that MariaDB is installed, to test whether the database server was successfully installed, run the commands below…

sudo mysql -u root -p

type the root password when prompted…

mariadb welcome

If you see a similar screen as shown above, then the server was successfully installed…

Step 4: Install PHP 7.2 and Related Modules

Magento CMS is a PHP based CMS and PHP is required… However, PHP 7.2 may not be available in Ubuntu default repositories… To run PHP 7.2 on Ubuntu 16.04 and previous, you may need to run the commands below:

sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

Then update and upgrade to PHP 7.2

sudo apt update

Next, run the commands below to install PHP 7.2 and related modules.

sudo apt install php7.2-fpm php7.2-common php7.2-gmp php7.2-curl php7.2-intl php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xmlrpc php7.2-mysql php7.2-xsl php7.2-bcmath php7.2-soap php7.2-gd php7.2-xml php7.2-cli php7.2-zip

After installing PHP 7.2, run the commands below to open PHP default configuration file for Nginx…

sudo nano /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini

The lines below is a good settings for most PHP based CMS… Update the configuration file with these and save….

file_uploads = On
allow_url_fopen = On
short_open_tag = On
memory_limit = 256M
upload_max_filesize = 100M
max_execution_time = 360
date.timezone = America/Chicago

Everytime you make changes to PHP configuration file, you should also restart Nginx web server… To do so, run the commands below:

sudo systemctl restart nginx.service

Now that PHP is installed, to test whether it’s functioning, create a test file called phpinfo.php in Nginx default root directory…. ( /var/www/html/)

sudo nano /var/www/html/phpinfo.php

Then type the content below and save the file.

<?php phpinfo( ); ?>

Next, open your browser and browse to the server’s hostname or IP address followed by phpinfo.php

http://localhost/phpinfo.php

You should see PHP default test page…

PHP Test Page

Step 5: Create Magento Database

Now that you’ve installed all the packages that are required for Magento to function, continue below to start configuring the servers. First run the commands below to create a blank Magento database.

To logon to MariaDB database server, run the commands below.

sudo mysql -u root -p

Then create a database called magento

CREATE DATABASE magento;

Create a database user called magentouser with a new password

CREATE USER 'magentouser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'new_password_here';

Then grant the user full access to the database.

GRANT ALL ON magento.* TO 'magentouser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'user_password_here' WITH GRANT OPTION;

Finally, save your changes and exit.

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
EXIT;

Step 6: Download Magento Latest Release

To get Magento 2 latest release you may want to use Github repository… Install Composer, Curl and other dependencies to get started…

sudo apt install curl git
curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php -- --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

After installing curl and Composer above, change into the Nginx root directory and download Magento 2 packages from Github…

When prompted, enter your authentication keys. Your public key is your username; your private key is your password….  ( https://marketplace.magento.com/customer/accessKeys/ )

You’ll have to register for an account to create the key above….

cd /var/www/html
sudo composer create-project --repository=https://repo.magento.com/ magento/project-community-edition example.com

Copy and paste the authentication key… (Your public key is your username; your private key is your password)

Output:
Authentication required (repo.magento.com):
Username: 234f2343435d190983j0ew8u3220
Password: 
Do you want to store credentials for repo.magento.com in /opt/magento/.config/composer/auth.json ? [Yn] Y

After downloading Magento packages, run the commands below to install Magento 2 with the following options:

cd /var/www/html/example.com
sudo bin/magento setup:install --base-url-secure=https://example.com/ --db-host=localhost --db-name=magento --db-user=magentouser --db-password=new_password_here --admin-firstname=Admin --admin-lastname=User --admin-email=admin@example.com --admin-user=admin --admin-password=admin123 --language=en_US --currency=USD --timezone=America/Chicago --use-rewrites=1

 

  • The Magento software is installed in the root directory on localhost…. Admin is admin;  therefore: Your storefront URL is https://exmaple.com
  • The database server is on the same localhost as the webserver….
  • The database name is magento, and the magentouser and password is new_passwored_here
  • Uses server rewrites
  • The Magento administrator has the following properties:
    • First and last name are: Admin User
    • Username is: admin
  •  and the password is admin123
  • E-mail address is: admin@example.com
  • Default language is: (U.S. English)
  • Default currency is: U.S. dollars
  • Default time zone is: U.S. Central (America/Chicago)

After that, run the commands below to set the correct permissions for Magento 2 to function.

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/example.com/
sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/html/example.com/

Step 7: Configure Nginx

Finally, configure Nginx site configuration file for Magento. This file will control how users access Magento content. Run the commands below to create a new configuration file called example.com.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

Then copy and paste the content below into the file and save it. Replace the highlighted line with your own domain name and directory root location…

Also make sure to reference the certificate files created above during Cloudflare setup..

upstream fastcgi_backend {
  server   fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
    listen [::]:443 ssl http2;

    server_name  example.com www.example.com;
    index  index.php;

    ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/cloudflare_example.com.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/cloudflare_example.com.pem;
    ssl_client_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/origin-pull-ca.pem;
    ssl_verify_client on;

    set $MAGE_ROOT /var/www/html/example.com;
    set $MAGE_MODE production;

    access_log /var/log/nginx/example.com-access.log;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/example.com-error.log;

    include /var/www/html/example.com/nginx.conf.sample;
}

Save the file and exit.

Step 8: Enable the Magento

After configuring the VirtualHost above, enable it by running the commands below

sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
sudo systemctl restart nginx.service

Next, open your browser and browse to your domain name used above…

https://example.com/

You should see Magento home page as shown below

Ubuntu Magento

Don’t forget to download Cloudflare’s extension for Magento 2 and follow the installation instructions: https://www.cloudflare.com/integrations/magento/

Congratulation! You have successfully installed Magento on Ubuntu 16.04 | 18.04 and may work on upcoming 18.10…

In the future when you want to upgrade to a new released version, simply run the commands below to upgrade…

Upgrading Magento

First stop the webserver…

sudo systemctl stop nginx

In the future when you want to upgrade to a new released version, simply run the commands below to upgrade…

cd /var/www/html/example.com
sudo bin/magento maintenance:enable
sudo composer require magento/product-community-edition 2.2.5 --no-update
sudo composer update
sudo php bin/magento setup:upgrade
sudo php bin/magento setup:di:compile
sudo php bin/magento indexer:reindex
sudo php bin/magento maintenance:disable

You may have to re-run the to update Nginx directory permissions…

Congratulations! You have successfully setup Magento eCommerce platform on Ubuntu with Cloudflare support on Ubuntu 16.04 | 18.04

You may also like the post below:

Install Stacer System Monitor & Optimizer on Ubuntu 18.04 / 16.04 LTS

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.